Abies_amabilis elev Pacific silver fir

Abies_amabilis noelev Pacific silver fir

Abies_balsamea elev balsam fir

Abies_balsamea noelev balsam fir

Abies_bracteata elev bristlecone fir

Abies_bracteata noelev bristlecone fir

Abies_fraseri elev Fraser fir

Abies_fraseri noelev Fraser fir

Abies_grandis elev grand fir

Abies_grandis noelev grand fir

Abies_lasiocarpa elev subalpine fir

Abies_lasiocarpa noelev subalpine fir

Abies_procera elev noble fir

Abies_procera noelev noble fir

Acer_barbatum elev Florida maple

Acer_barbatum noelev Florida maple

Acer_glabrum elev Rocky Mountain maple

Acer_glabrum noelev Rocky Mountain maple

Acer_grandidentatum elev bigtooth maple

Acer_grandidentatum noelev bigtooth maple

Acer_leucoderme elev chalk maple

Acer_leucoderme noelev chalk maple

Acer_macrophyllum elev bigleaf maple

Acer_macrophyllum noelev bigleaf maple

Acer_negundo elev boxelder

Acer_negundo noelev boxelder

Acer_nigrum elev black maple

Acer_nigrum noelev black maple

Acer_pensylvanicum elev striped maple

Acer_pensylvanicum noelev striped maple

Acer_rubrum elev red maple

Acer_rubrum noelev red maple

Acer_saccharinum elev silver maple

Acer_saccharinum noelev silver maple

Acer_saccharum elev sugar maple

Acer_saccharum noelev sugar maple

Acer_spicatum elev mountain maple

Acer_spicatum noelev mountain maple

Adelges_tsugae elev hemlock woolly adelgid

Adelges_tsugae noelev hemlock woolly adelgid

Aesculus_flava elev yellow buckeye

Aesculus_flava noelev yellow buckeye

Aesculus_glabra elev Ohio buckeye

Aesculus_glabra noelev Ohio buckeye

Alnus_rubra elev red alder

Alnus_rubra noelev red alder

Amelanchier_species elev serviceberry species

Amelanchier_species noelev serviceberry species

Arbutus_menziesii elev Pacific madrone

Arbutus_menziesii noelev Pacific madrone

Asimina_triloba elev pawpaw

Asimina_triloba noelev pawpaw

Betula_alleghaniensis elev yellow birch

Betula_alleghaniensis noelev yellow birch

Betula_lenta elev sweet birch

Betula_lenta noelev sweet birch

Betula_nigra elev river birch

Betula_nigra noelev river birch

Betula_occidentalis elev water birch

Betula_papyrifera elev paper birch

Betula_papyrifera noelev paper birch

Betula_populifolia elev gray birch

Betula_populifolia noelev gray birch

Callitropsis_nootkatensis elev Alaska yellow-cedar

Callitropsis_nootkatensis noelev Alaska yellow-cedar

Calocedrus_decurrens elev incense-cedar

Calocedrus_decurrens noelev incense-cedar

Carpinus_caroliniana elev musclewood

Carpinus_caroliniana noelev musclewood

Carya_alba elev mockernut hickory

Carya_alba noelev mockernut hickory

Carya_aquatica elev water hickory

Carya_aquatica noelev water hickory

Carya_cordiformis elev bitternut hickory

Carya_cordiformis noelev bitternut hickory

Carya_glabra elev pignut hickory

Carya_glabra noelev pignut hickory

Carya_illinoinensis elev pecan

Carya_illinoinensis noelev pecan

Carya_laciniosa elev shellbark hickory

Carya_laciniosa noelev shellbark hickory

Carya_myristiciformis elev nutmeg hickory

Carya_ovata elev shagbark hickory

Carya_ovata noelev shagbark hickory

Carya_pallida elev sand hickory

Carya_pallida noelev sand hickory

Carya_texana elev black hickory

Carya_texana noelev black hickory

Castanea_dentata elev American chestnut

Castanea_dentata noelev American chestnut

Castanea_ozarkensis elev Ozark chinkapin

Castanea_ozarkensis noelev Ozark chinkapin

Celtis_laevigata elev sugarberry

Celtis_laevigata noelev sugarberry

Celtis_occidentalis elev hackberry

Celtis_occidentalis noelev hackberry

Cercis_canadensis elev eastern redbud

Cercis_canadensis noelev eastern redbud

Chamaecyparis_thyoides elev Atlantic whitecedar

Chamaecyparis_thyoides noelev Atlantic whitecedar

Chrysolepis_chrysophylla elev golden chinkapin

Chrysolepis_chrysophylla noelev golden chinkapin

Cornus_florida elev flowering dogwood

Cornus_florida noelev flowering dogwood

Cotinus_obovatus elev smoketree

Cotinus_obovatus noelev smoketree

Crataegus_species elev hawthorn

Crataegus_species noelev hawthorn

Cupressus_abramsiana elev Santa Cruz cypress

Cupressus_abramsiana noelev Santa Cruz cypress

Diospyros_virginiana elev common persimmon

Diospyros_virginiana noelev common persimmon

Fagus_grandifolia elev American beech

Fagus_grandifolia noelev American beech

Fraxinus_americana elev white ash

Fraxinus_americana noelev white ash

Fraxinus_caroliniana elev Carolina ash

Fraxinus_caroliniana noelev Carolina ash

Fraxinus_latifolia elev Oregon ash

Fraxinus_latifolia noelev Oregon ash

Fraxinus_nigra elev black ash

Fraxinus_nigra noelev black ash

Fraxinus_pennsylvanica elev green ash

Fraxinus_pennsylvanica noelev green ash

Fraxinus_profunda elev pumpkin ash

Fraxinus_profunda noelev pumpkin ash

Fraxinus_quadrangulata elev blue ash

Fraxinus_quadrangulata noelev blue ash

Fraxinus_texensis elev Texas ash

Fraxinus_texensis noelev Texas ash

Gleditsia_aquatica elev waterlocust

Gleditsia_aquatica noelev waterlocust

Gleditsia_triacanthos elev honeylocust

Gleditsia_triacanthos noelev honeylocust

Gordonia_lasianthus elev loblolly bay

Gordonia_lasianthus noelev loblolly bay

Gymnocladus_dioicus elev Kentucky coffeetree

Gymnocladus_dioicus noelev Kentucky coffeetree

Halesia_carolina elev Carolina silverbell

Halesia_carolina noelev Carolina silverbell

Ilex_opaca elev American holly

Ilex_opaca noelev American holly

Juglans_cinerea elev butternut

Juglans_cinerea noelev butternut

Juglans_nigra elev black walnut

Juglans_nigra noelev black walnut

Juniperus_monosperma elev oneseed juniper

Juniperus_monosperma noelev oneseed juniper

Juniperus_osteosperma elev Utah juniper

Juniperus_osteosperma noelev Utah juniper

Juniperus_scopulorum elev Rocky Mountain juniper

Juniperus_scopulorum noelev Rocky Mountain juniper

Juniperus_virginiana elev eastern redcedar

Juniperus_virginiana noelev eastern redcedar

Larix_laricina elev tamarack

Larix_laricina noelev tamarack

Larix_lyallii elev subalpine larix

Larix_lyallii noelev subalpine larix

Larix_occidentalis elev western larix

Larix_occidentalis noelev western larix

Liquidambar_styraciflua elev Sweetgum

Liquidambar_styraciflua noelev Sweetgum

Liriodendron_tulipifera elev Tulip-poplar

Liriodendron_tulipifera noelev Tulip-poplar

Magnolia_acuminata elev cucumbertree

Magnolia_acuminata noelev cucumbertree

Magnolia_fraseri elev mountain magnolia

Magnolia_fraseri noelev mountain magnolia

Magnolia_grandiflora elev Southern magnolia

Magnolia_grandiflora noelev Southern magnolia

Magnolia_macrophylla elev bigleaf magnolia

Magnolia_macrophylla noelev bigleaf magnolia

Magnolia_tripetala elev umbrella magnolia

Magnolia_tripetala noelev umbrella magnolia

Magnolia_virginiana elev sweetbay

Magnolia_virginiana noelev sweetbay

Malus_angustifolia elev southern crabapple

Malus_angustifolia noelev southern crabapple

Malus_coronaria elev sweet crabapple

Malus_coronaria noelev sweet crabapple

Morus_rubra elev red mulberry

Morus_rubra noelev red mulberry

Nyssa_aquatica elev water tupelo

Nyssa_aquatica noelev water tupelo

Nyssa_biflora elev swamp tupelo

Nyssa_biflora noelev swamp tupelo

Nyssa_ogeche elev Ogeechee tupelo

Nyssa_ogeche noelev Ogeechee tupelo

Nyssa_sylvatica elev blackgum

Nyssa_sylvatica noelev blackgum

Ostrya_virginiana elev eastern hophornbeam

Ostrya_virginiana noelev eastern hophornbeam

Oxydendrum_arboreum elev Sourwood

Oxydendrum_arboreum noelev Sourwood

Persea_borbonia elev redbay

Persea_borbonia noelev redbay

Picea_breweriana elev Brewer spruce

Picea_breweriana noelev Brewer spruce

Picea_engelmannii elev Engelmann spruce

Picea_engelmannii noelev Engelmann spruce

Picea_rubens elev Red spruce

Picea_rubens noelev Red spruce

Picea_sitchensis elev Sitka spruce

Picea_sitchensis noelev Sitka spruce

Pinus_albicaulis elev whitebark pine

Pinus_albicaulis noelev whitebark pine

Pinus_aristata elev Bristlecone pine (Rocky Mountain)

Pinus_aristata noelev Bristlecone pine (Rocky Mountain)

Pinus_attenuata elev Knobcone pine

Pinus_attenuata noelev Knobcone pine

Pinus_balfouriana elev foxtail pine

Pinus_balfouriana noelev foxtail pine

Pinus_contorta elev lodgepole pine

Pinus_contorta noelev lodgepole pine

Pinus_echinata elev Shortleaf pine

Pinus_echinata noelev Shortleaf pine

Pinus_flexilis elev limber pine

Pinus_flexilis noelev limber pine

Pinus_glabra elev spruce pine

Pinus_glabra noelev spruce pine

Pinus_jeffreyi elev Jeffrey pine

Pinus_jeffreyi noelev Jeffrey pine

Pinus_lambertiana elev sugar pine

Pinus_lambertiana noelev sugar pine

Pinus_longaeva elev bristlecone pine (Great Basin)

Pinus_longaeva noelev bristlecone pine (Great Basin)

Pinus_monticola elev western white pine

Pinus_monticola noelev western white pine

Pinus_palustris elev longleaf pine

Pinus_palustris noelev longleaf pine

Pinus_ponderosa elev ponderosa pine

Pinus_ponderosa noelev ponderosa pine

Pinus_pungens elev Table Mountain pine

Pinus_pungens noelev Table Mountain pine

Pinus_radiata elev Monterey pine

Pinus_radiata noelev Monterey pine

Pinus_resinosa elev red pine

Pinus_resinosa noelev red pine

Pinus_rigida elev pitch pine

Pinus_rigida noelev pitch pine

Pinus_sabiniana elev gray pine

Pinus_sabiniana noelev gray pine

Pinus_serotina elev pond pine

Pinus_serotina noelev pond pine

Pinus_strobiformis elev southwestern white pine

Pinus_strobiformis noelev southwestern white pine

Pinus_strobus elev

Pinus_strobus noelev

Pinus_taeda elev loblolly pine

Pinus_taeda noelev loblolly pine

Pinus_torreyana elev Torrey pine

Pinus_torreyana noelev Torrey pine

Pinus_virginiana elev Virginia pine

Pinus_virginiana noelev Virginia pine

Platanus_occidentalis elev American sycamore

Platanus_occidentalis noelev American sycamore

Populus_deltoides elev eastern cottonwood

Populus_deltoides noelev eastern cottonwood

Populus_grandidentata elev bigtooth aspen

Populus_grandidentata noelev bigtooth aspen

Populus_tremuloides elev trembling aspen

Populus_tremuloides noelev trembling aspen

Populus_trichocarpa elev black cottonwood

Populus_trichocarpa noelev black cottonwood

Prunus_americana elev American plum

Prunus_americana noelev American plum

Prunus_pensylvanica elev pin cherry

Prunus_pensylvanica noelev pin cherry

Prunus_serotina elev black cherry

Prunus_serotina noelev black cherry

Prunus_virginiana elev chokecherry

Prunus_virginiana noelev chokecherry

Pseudotsuga_menziesii elev Douglas-fir

Pseudotsuga_menziesii noelev Douglas-fir

Quercus_agrifolia elev California live oak

Quercus_agrifolia noelev California live oak

Quercus_alba elev white oak

Quercus_alba noelev white oak

Quercus_arizonica elev Arizona white oak

Quercus_arizonica noelev Arizona white oak

Quercus_arkansana elev Arkansas oak

Quercus_arkansana noelev Arkansas oak

Quercus_bicolor elev swamp white oak

Quercus_bicolor noelev swamp white oak

Quercus_boyntonii elev Boynton oak

Quercus_boyntonii noelev Boynton oak

Quercus_chrysolepis elev canyon live oak

Quercus_chrysolepis noelev canyon live oak

Quercus_coccinea elev scarlet oak

Quercus_coccinea noelev scarlet oak

Quercus_douglasii elev blue oak

Quercus_douglasii noelev blue oak

Quercus_ellipsoidalis elev northern pin oak

Quercus_ellipsoidalis noelev northern pin oak

Quercus_emoryi elev Emory oak

Quercus_emoryi noelev Emory oak

Quercus_falcata elev southern red oak

Quercus_falcata noelev southern red oak

Quercus_gambelii elev Gambel oak

Quercus_gambelii noelev Gambel oak

Quercus_garryana elev Oregon white oak

Quercus_garryana noelev Oregon white oak

Quercus_grisea elev gray oak

Quercus_grisea noelev gray oak

Quercus_hypoleucoides elev silverleaf oak

Quercus_hypoleucoides noelev silverleaf oak

Quercus_ilicifolia elev scrub oak

Quercus_ilicifolia noelev scrub oak

Quercus_imbricaria elev shingle oak

Quercus_imbricaria noelev shingle oak

Quercus_incana elev bluejack oak

Quercus_incana noelev bluejack oak

Quercus_kelloggii elev Calfornia black oak

Quercus_kelloggii noelev Calfornia black oak

Quercus_laevis elev turkey oak

Quercus_laevis noelev turkey oak

Quercus_laurifolia elev laurel oak

Quercus_laurifolia noelev laurel oak

Quercus_lobata elev California white oak

Quercus_lobata noelev California white oak

Quercus_lyrata elev overcup oak

Quercus_lyrata noelev overcup oak

Quercus_macrocarpa elev bur oak

Quercus_macrocarpa noelev bur oak

Quercus_margarettiae elev dwarf post oak

Quercus_margarettiae noelev dwarf post oak

Quercus_marilandica elev blackjack oak

Quercus_marilandica noelev blackjack oak

Quercus_michauxii elev swamp chestnut oak

Quercus_michauxii noelev swamp chestnut oak

Quercus_minima elev dwarf live oak

Quercus_minima noelev dwarf live oak

Quercus_muehlenbergii elev chinkapin oak

Quercus_muehlenbergii noelev chinkapin oak

Quercus_nigra elev Water oak

Quercus_nigra noelev Water oak

Quercus_oblongifolia elev Mexican blue oak

Quercus_oblongifolia noelev Mexican blue oak

Quercus_pagoda elev cherrybark oak

Quercus_pagoda noelev cherrybark oak

Quercus_palustris elev pin oak

Quercus_palustris noelev pin oak

Quercus_phellos elev willow oak

Quercus_phellos noelev willow oak

Quercus_prinus elev chestnut oak

Quercus_prinus noelev chestnut oak

Quercus_rubra elev northern red oak

Quercus_rubra noelev northern red oak

Quercus_rugosa elev netleaf oak

Quercus_rugosa noelev netleaf oak

Quercus_shumardii elev Shumard oak

Quercus_shumardii noelev Shumard oak

Quercus_similis elev Delta post oak

Quercus_similis noelev Delta post oak

Quercus_sinuata elev Durand oak

Quercus_sinuata noelev Durand oak

Quercus_stellata elev post oak

Quercus_stellata noelev post oak

Quercus_texana elev Nutall oak

Quercus_texana noelev Nutall oak

Quercus_velutina elev black oak

Quercus_velutina noelev black oak

Quercus_virginiana elev live oak

Quercus_virginiana noelev live oak

Quercus_wislizeni elev interior live oak

Quercus_wislizeni noelev interior live oak

Robinia_pseudoacacia elev black locust

Robinia_pseudoacacia noelev black locust

Salix_nigra elev black willow

Salix_nigra noelev black willow

Sassafras_albidum elev sassafras

Sassafras_albidum noelev sassafras

Sequoia_sempervirens elev coast redwood

Sequoia_sempervirens noelev coast redwood

Sequoiadendron_gigan elev giant redwood

Sideroxylon_lanuginosum elev gum bumelia

Sideroxylon_lanuginosum noelev gum bumelia

Sorbus_americana elev American mountain-ash

Sorbus_americana noelev American mountain-ash

Stewartia_ovata elev mountain camellia

Stewartia_ovata noelev mountain camellia

Taxodium_distichum elev baldcypress

Taxodium_distichum noelev baldcypress

Taxus_brevifolia elev Pacific yew

Taxus_brevifolia noelev Pacific yew

Thuja_occidentalis elev northern white-cedar

Thuja_occidentalis noelev northern white-cedar

Thuja_plicata elev western redcedar

Thuja_plicata noelev western redcedar

Tilia_americana elev American basswood

Tilia_americana noelev American basswood

Tilia_caroliniana elev Carolina basswood

Tilia_caroliniana noelev Carolina basswood

Tilia_heterophylla elev white basswood

Tilia_heterophylla noelev white basswood

Tsuga_canadensis elev eastern hemlock

Tsuga_canadensis noelev eastern hemlock

Tsuga_caroliniana elev Carolina hemlock

Tsuga_caroliniana noelev Carolina hemlock

Tsuga_heterophylla elev western hemlock

Tsuga_heterophylla noelev western hemlock

Tsuga_mertensiana elev mountain hemlock

Tsuga_mertensiana noelev mountain hemlock

Tsuga_sieboldii elev southern Japanese hemlock

Tsuga_sieboldii noelev southern Japanese hemlock

Ulmus_alata elev winged elm

Ulmus_alata noelev winged elm

Ulmus_americana elev American elm

Ulmus_americana noelev American elm

Ulmus_crassifolia elev cedar elm

Ulmus_crassifolia noelev cedar elm

Ulmus_rubra elev slippery elm

Ulmus_rubra noelev slippery elm

Ulmus_serotina elev September elm

Ulmus_serotina noelev September elm

Ulmus_thomasii elev rock elm

Ulmus_thomasii noelev rock elm

How to Read the Maps

The following maps have been generated for each species, accessible by clicking on the name of the species:

For most of these maps, one version focuses on the continental United States, and the other encompasses the entire world. The blue outlines on the continental United States maps show the existing distributions for each species. The green dots on the world current and future climate maps show the sampling points used to create the maps. Additionally, there is a link at the top of each species' page to the coordinates of the species locations used as training data.

On the current suitable habitat maps and future habitat maps (PCM climate model maps and Hadley climate model maps, under two emissions scenarios at 2050 and 2100), areas that are red are statistically identical to locations where the species is known to currently exist. Areas in gray are similar to existing locations, with darker gray areas most similar and lighter gray areas less similar.


The differences between the existing distribution for each species in current time (the blue outlines on the map) and the predicted habitat in current time (in red) are not unexpected: Existing environmentally suitable habitat for a species (its fundamental ecological niche) will almost always be broader than its actual distribution (its realized fundamental niche) because of inter-species interactions and biogeographical history, among other reasons.

Another set of maps reports the minimum required movement (MRM) for the species to match anticipated changing climate conditions. The first of these maps (labeled "Present and Future Ranges - Hadley, Scenario B1, 2050") compares the current expected range to the range in 2050 under the Hadley model, lower emissions (B1) scenario. On these, yellow areas are those that are currently suitable and expected to be suitable in the future, green areas are those expected to become suitable in the future, and red areas are currently suitable habitat areas that are expected to become unsuitable.
The second MRM map for each species is a cost map for the world depicting the direction organisms would need to move to reach suitable habitat in the future (labeled "MRM Distance Cost - Hadley, Scenario B1, 2050"). This is used to generate the following two maps. In these maps (labeled "MRM Direction Map - Hadley, Scenario B1, 2050"), the green areas are future suitable habitat (whether new or existing in current time), while peaks and valleys are generated to depict the direction from currently suitable/future unsuitable habitat to the nearest suitable habitat in the future.

The last MRM maps (labeled "MRM Distance Map - Hadley, Scenario B1, 2050") show the distance from current suitable habitat to future suitable habitat. Green areas are, as with the direction maps, areas that are suitable in the future, both newly suitable habitat and habitat that remains suitable over time. Current suitable habitat that is expected to become unsuitable is displayed in a color ramp from yellow to red, with darker areas being farther from suitable habitat in the future.